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The Origin of Species PDF Book by Charles Darwin


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Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species, published 24 November 1859, is a seminal work of scientific literature considered to be the foundation of evolutionary biology. Its full title was On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. For the 6th edition of 1872, the short title was changed to The Origin of Species. Darwin's book introduced the theory that populations evolve over the course of generations through a process of natural selection, and presented a body of evidence that the diversity of life arose through a branching pattern of evolution and common descent. This included evidence that he had accumulated on the voyage of the Beagle in the 1830s, and his subsequent findings from research, correspondence, and experimentation.Various evolutionary ideas had already been proposed to explain new findings in biology. There was growing support for such ideas among dissident anatomists and the general public, but during the first half of the 19th century the English scientific establishment was closely tied to the Church of England, and science was part of natural theology. Ideas about the transmutation of species were controversial as they conflicted with the beliefs that species were unchanging parts of a designed hierarchy and that humans were unique, unrelated to animals. The political and theological implications were intensely debated, but transmutation was not accepted by the scientific mainstream.The book was written to be read by non-specialists, and it attracted widespread interest on its publication. Darwin's eminence as a scientist meant that his findings had to be taken seriously, and the evidence he presented generated scientific, philosophical, and religious discussion. Within two decades this led to widespread scientific agreement that evolution with a branching pattern of common descent had occurred. The debate over the book contributed to the campaign by T.H. Huxley and his fellow members of the X-club to secularize science by promoting scientific naturalism. Scientists were slow to give natural selection the significance that Darwin thought appropriate, and during the eclipse of Darwinism various other mechanisms of evolution were given more credit. With the modern evolutionary synthesis of the 1930s and 1940s Darwin's concept of evolutionary adaptation through natural selection became central to modern evolutionary theory, which is the unifying concept of the life sciences.

Contents:

CHAPTER I. CAUSES OF VARIABILITY
CHAPTER II.VARIATION UNDER NATURE.
CHAPTER III.STRUGGLE FOR EXISTENCE.
CHAPTER IV.NATURAL SELECTION; OR THE SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST.
CHAPTER V.LAWS OF VARIATION.
CHAPTER VI.DIFFICULTIES OF THE THEORY.
CHAPTER VII.MISCELLANEOUS OBJECTIONS TO THE THEORY OF NATURAL SELECTION.
CHAPTER VIII. INSTINCT.
CHAPTER IX. HYBRIDISM.
CHAPTER X. ON THE IMPERFECTION OF THE GEOLOGICAL RECORD.
CHAPTER XI. ON THE GEOLOGICAL SUCCESSION OF ORGANIC BEINGS.
CHAPTER XII. GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION.
CHAPTER XIII. GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION--continued.
CHAPTER XIV.MUTUAL AFFINITIES OF ORGANIC BEINGS: MORPHOLOGY --EMBRYOLOGY -- RUDIMENTARY ORGANS.
CHAPTER XV. RECAPITULATION AND CONCLUSION.

Info About The Book:

Categories: Biology and other natural sciences 

Year: 1995

Publisher:  Gramercy

Language: English

Pages: 434

File: PDF, 1.96 MB

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